type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease that is indicated by the high level of sugar in the blood stream. This happens when the body either does not produce sufficient amounts of insulin or the body fails to react to the insulin produced by the body. Insulin is a hormone that is discharged by the pancreas and its primary function is to convert or carry glucose to the cells of tissues of the body where it is expended as energy. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most prevalent form of the disease; it was earlier called as adult onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes. However, this disease can develop at any age. Generally it starts with insulin resistance. In this situation the insulin secreted by the pancreas is not properly used by the tissues and cells of the body. The failure of insulin to get inside the fat and muscle cells to generate energy is known as insulin resistance.
In diabetes mellitus type 2 the pancreas progressively looses the capacity to secrete sufficient amounts of insulin in response to the meals consumed by the individuals. Overweight and obese generally develop diabetes type 2. The treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 includes exercise, sensible food choices, medications, strict control of blood pressure and blood lipids. Some of the common symptoms of diabetes type 2 are fatigue, unexplained hunger, excessive thirst, excessive urination, and unexplained weight loss or gain. Diabetes type 2 generally progresses slowly. The chances of developing diabetes can be considerably reduced if one follows a healthy life style that includes exercises, weight management, regular and timely meals and low intake of fatty foods. Poor diet and wrong eating habits along with excessive body fats are the main factors that influence the development of diabetes type 2. other risk factors include history of gestational diabetes, genetics, high blood pressure, race, damaged or impaired glucose tolerance, and advanced age.
When a person is diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus type 2 the doctor or family physician will first concentrate on stabilizing the blood glucose level. This is followed by recommendation of exercises and a diet plan. Doctors also encourage patients to learn basic diabetes management skills for better control over their condition. Taking timely meals, medications and exercising is crucial. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is also important. There are various types of blood glucose monitors available that can help in regular monitoring of glucose levels.
Medicines can be taken when diet and exercise do not help in controlling glucose levels. oral medicines line Biguanides (Metformin), Sulfonylureas, alpha glucosidase inhibitors and Thiazolidinediones are some of the medications prescribed.
About 6% of the total American population suffers from adult onset diabetes; it is also the leading cause of death in USA. Most patients suffering from kidney disease, nervous system disorders, heart problems, and blindness are patients suffering from diabetes type 2. 95% of all diabetic cases in the USA are suffering from diabetes type 2.
The body needs glucose to produce energy but regrettably the cells are numb and cannot recognize insulin, this leads to the build of glucose in the blood. This is the main factor that influences diabetes mellitus type 2.