Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition, which was once known as adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Your body’s main source of fuel is affected by the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose). Type 2 diabetes mellitus is often preventable, but due to the rise in obesity it is on rise. When you have type 2 diabetes the effects of insulin is nullified by your body. To maintain normal glucose level insulin is required. Sometimes the insulin produced by your body is not enough and hence you need to stimulate insulin production with exercise, weight loss, and medications. The absorption of sugar into your cells is regulated by the hormone ‘insulin’. The consequences of type 2 diabetes can be life-threatening if you do not control it. But for managing it you can do plenty to prevent the condition from spiraling out of control. You can start by maintaining a healthy weight, eating healthy foods, and including physical activity in your daily routine. Insulin therapy or diabetic medications are needed if exercise and diet are not enough.

At first Type 2 diabetes symptoms may seem harmless. In fact, you will not even know that you have type 2 diabetes mellitus for years. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus are: Slow-healing sores or frequent infections; Blurred vision; Extreme hunger; Weight loss; Fatigue; Increased thirst and frequent urination. Certain risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus are: Family history; Race; Weight; Inactivity and Gestational diabetes. To screen for type 2 diabetes mellitus various blood tests can be used such as: Random blood sugar test; Fasting blood sugar test and Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test.

Particularly, in the early stages of type 2 diabetes mellitus when you are feeling fine it it is ignored. But many major organs including your blood vessels, nerves, heart, kidneys and eyes can be affected by type 2 diabetes. You can actually lessen the risk of these problems by keeping your blood sugar level close to normal most of the time. The short-term and long-term complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus are: High blood sugar (hyperglycemia); Diabetic ketoacidosis; Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia); Heart and blood vessel disease; Nerve damage (neuropathy); Kidney damage (nephropathy); Eye damage; Foot damage; Skin and mouth conditions; Osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s disease.

The treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus includes regular blood sugar monitoring, regular exercise, healthy eating and sometimes diabetes medications or insulin therapy. In fact, you can lower the menace of diabetes-related heart attacks and strokes by more than 50 percent, just by strict management of blood sugar levels.

Your treatment plan will comprise of: Monitoring your blood sugar; eating balanced food, increased physical activity, medications, prompt treatment of other illness, abstinence from alcohol, stress management, and avoiding fluctuations in hormone levels

Above all, you will have to stay positive. Diabetes is a serious disease but it can be managed.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Type 1 diabetes mellitus was once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. It is a continuous condition wherein the pancreas creates little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone required to alter sugar (glucose) into energy. Type 1diabetes mellitus can advance at any age; however it normally emerges during childhood or adolescence. There are various factors responsible for type 1diabetes. These include exposure to certain viruses and genetics. There is no cure for type 1 diabetes mellitus, in spite of active research being conducted all over the world. The daily routine of controlling type 1 diabetes has been made simple by the advances in blood sugar checking systems and insulin delivery mechanism. People who have type 1 diabetes mellitus can look forward to live long and healthy lives with proper treatment.

At first type 1 diabetes mellitus symptoms can look innocuous. They include: Frequent urination and increased thirst. The fluid is pulled from your tissues as excess sugar assembles in your bloodstream. This makes you thirsty, as a result you drink and urinate more than usual; Extreme hunger: Your muscles and organs become tired due to lack of energy, as there is not enough insulin to transfer sugar into your cells. This ignites severe hunger that refuses to go away even after you eat. Your energy-starved tissues do not receive the sugar from your food without insulin; Fatigue: You turn tired and ill-tempered if your cells are deprived of sugar; Blurred vision: The fluid can be pulled from your tissues if your blood sugar level is too high – including the lenses of your eyes. Your ability to focus clearly gets affected.

To understand type 1 diabetes mellitus you have to be familiar with how glucose is normally treated in the body. The main source of energy for the cells is glucose. They form the framework of your muscles and other tissues. Glucose is generated from the food you eat and the liver. Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream during digestion. With the help of insulin the sugar then goes into cells. Insulin a hormone comes from the pancreas. Your pancreas secretes insulin into your bloodstream when you eat. The amount of sugar in your bloodstream is lowered by insulin. The secretion of insulin from your pancreas drops just as your blood sugar level drops. Glucose storage and manufacturing is the function of your liver. The stored glucose is released by your liver in order to maintain your glucose level within a normal range. This will occur when your insulin levels are low, for example you have not eaten in a while.

In type 1 diabetes mellitus the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are hit and damaged by your immune system. Its normal function of it is to naturally fight harmful bacteria or viruses. As the immune system destroys the cells producing insulin there is little or no insulin left in the blood, as a result sugar accumulates in your bloodstream.

The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is still unknown. Genetics play a role. Exposure to certain viruses may act as a trigger as well. You will have to commence insulin therapy, if you are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In case you have high blood pressure or kidney disease, or if you are pregnant and your diabetes is not well controlled then a methodical yearly exam and regular foot and eye exams are also required.

Above all, you will have to stay positive. In order to enjoy a healthy and active life with type 1 diabetes mellitus you will be helped if you adopt good habits like eating balanced meals and exercising daily.

Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 causes a range of disorders macrovascualr, microvascular and neuropathic. Macrovascualr ailments like coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease etc. microvascular conditions like retinal, renal problems and neuropathic conditions. Patients with diabetes are condemned for life and have to depend on insulin or oral medications to regulate their insulin production or control their blood glucose levels. Pathophysiology of diabetes actually means insulin resistance. In this condition the body cells are unable to cognizance of the presence of insulin in the blood. Insulin production is not the major problem but its failure to take action is.

Other contributing factors are weakened beta cell functions, the failure of the pancreas to release insulin in the presence of hyperglycemic stimulus and increased hepatic glucose creation. Imbalance in the quantity of insulin present in the body is also a condition that occurs when diabetes strikes. Insulin production is also affected by other illness or medications taken to treat them. Cancer patients who received HCT or Hematopoietic Cell transplants are more than likely to develop diabetes mellitus type 2. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for cancer are more likely to develop diabetes type2.

Diabetes is easier to treat when the body is still producing some amounts of insulin. Compared to type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes symptoms are milder and hence go unnoticed for prolonged periods. In type 1 diabetes the symptoms are alarming like ketoacidosis and diabetic coma. However, if diabetes type 2 if ignored and left untreated can result in serious conditions that may include renal failure, blindness, arterial disease, heart disease, and slow healing of wounds.

Diabetes mellitus is commonly found in middle to older age group individuals. However, it is also observed frequently in adolescents and young adults. This is due to the availability of advanced screening methods that are available these days. The exact origin of diabetes mellitus type 2 is still not known. Viral infection, genetics, lifestyle, eating disorders, and obesity are some of the commonly blamed factors. Sometimes sudden trauma or surgery is also known to cause diabetes. Diabetes is also caused as a reaction to drugs and prolonged use of steroids.

Diabetes mellitus almost always accompanies conditions like elevated cholesterol (hyperlipidemia), hypertension, obesity and other metabolic conditions like Syndrome X etc. supplementary factors that influence the existence of diabetes include inactive lifestyle, aging, and wrong eating habits.

Proper nutrition and regular exercise can often delay the onset of pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus type 2. Diabetes mellitus type 2 has no ascertained cure; it is an advancing and lasting disease. Nevertheless most of the previously appointed effects of the condition can be delayed and sometimes avoided by treatment. The treatments have two main goals: reduction of mortality and associated sickness or diabetic complications, and maintenance or improvement of quality of life. The first goal can be achieved through glycemic control and the second goal is often achieved by education and medications.

Medications for type2 diabetes mellitus

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an ever-present and advancing disease which is diagnosed in patients having diabetes symptoms. This type2 diabetes mainly crops up in people who are obese, have uncontainable food habits and live an inactive lifestyle.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is also described as “insulin resistance” as body cells do not respond appropriately when insulin is present. Especially in obese or overweight patient’s type 2 is treated initially by regulating diet and exercise and by encouraging weight loss. Insulin sensitivity is restored to a certain degree by weight loss, thus improving the life of the patient. When this treatment does not seem to work then oral anti-diabetic drugs are administered. Medications of type 2 diabetes mellitus include oral drugs, Injectable peptide analogs, insulin preparations, anti-hypertensive agents, anti-diabetic drugs, hypolipidemic agents and gastric bypass surgery.

The oral drugs for type2 diabetes mellitus include, sulphonylureas, Biguanides (metformin), Thiazolidinediones, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol), Meglitinides (nateglinide, repaglinide and their analogues). Meglitinides which arouse insulin release (nateglinide, repaglinide, and their analogs) quickly can be taken with food, unlike sulfonylureas which must be taken prior to food, sometimes some hours before, depending on the drug. There are several anti-diabetic drugs available for type 2 diabetics. They comprise of several classes and are not equivalent, nor can they be simply alternated one for another. All of them are prescription drugs. One of the most extensively used drugs now is the biguanide metformin. The classes of newer drugs include; Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) (rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, and troglitazone); glucosidase inhibitors; Meglitinides; Incretin mimetics; analog exenatide; Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and Amylin agonist analog. Incretin mimetics increase insulin output of the beta cells.

The injectable peptide analogs include DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 analogs. Both these classes offer an option to other anti-diabetic drugs. Insulin therapy may be necessary, in case of failure of anti-diabetic drugs. This typically adds to oral medication therapy to support normal or near normal glucose levels. The best timing and the amounts of insulin dosage depends on diet, as well as the extent of insulin resistance. Recently, a trial found that the long acting insulin were less successful, however, they were related with reduced hypoglycemic occurrences. One of the studies recommends that type2 diabetes mellitus patients should be treated with ACE inhibitors provided they have one of the following: hypercholesterolemia or reduced low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, microalbuminuria, hypertension, and nicotine addiction.

Gastric Bypass procedures are currently considered a non-compulsory procedure with no unanimously accepted algorithm to decide who should have the surgery. Some physicians suggest that such surgery is helpful in type2 patients, particularly those who are obese.

The variety of available agents can be confusing and the scientific disparity among medications of type2 diabetes mellitus compounds the problem. The choice of drugs at present for type2 diabetes mellitus is rarely uncomplicated and in most illustrations has elements of repeated trial and adjustment. One thing that you must remember is that type2 diabetes mainly comes about in people who are overweight, live an inactive lifestyle and have uncontrollable food habits. The key to get rid of type2 diabetes is to live on a healthy diet and do regular exercises.

Health news on diabetes mellitus type 2

There are many avenues to search and receive health news on diabetes mellitus type 2. But one of the best media for the same is websites. There are numerous websites which cater to the subject of health news on diabetes mellitus type 2. These websites catering to the health news are run by private parties and by government organizations.

The reliable, recognized, good and genuine web sites furnishing health news on diabetes mellitus type 2 are:
www.medicinenet.com/diabetes/focus, www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/diabetes.html,
www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp, www.diabetes.org, www.health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/diabetes/overview.html, www.news-medical.net, www.medlineplus.gov, www.cnn.com/health, www.medindia.com, www.health.gov, www.mayoclinic.com,
www.library.uchc.edu/departm/hnet/healthnews.html – national library of medicine and www.health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/diabetes/overview.html.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 is known as adult-onset diabetes, non-insulin dependent diabetes and also called “sugar”. The disease in which your sugar levels, blood glucose remain high is diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is an unceasing (lifelong) disease. The glucose is generated from the foods you eat. In order that your cells get energy the hormone insulin helps glucose to get into your cells. Diabetes mellitus type 2 which is more common type does not allow your body to create or use insulin well. The glucose resides in your blood, as it does not receive adequate insulin. If you have too much glucose in your blood then it causes grave problems. Your kidneys, nerves and eyes can get damaged due to it. Even the need to remove a limb, heart disease, and stroke are likely to be caused by diabetes mellitus type 2. Pregnant women can also acquire diabetes which is known as gestational diabetes. Symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 2 are blurred vision, frequent urination, weight loss, thirst and fatigue. However, there may be no symptoms at all in some people. Diabetes can be verified by a blood test. Your diabetes can be managed with the help of a meal plan, weight control and exercise. It is also necessary to monitor your glucose level and if medicine is prescribed then to take it regularly.

Some of the latest health news on diabetes mellitus type 2 by Health Day Reporter is: Diabetes Can Double Odds of Alzheimer’s, Diabetes Keeps Rising Among U.S. Adults, Intensive Insulin Therapy Lowers Mortality in Kids, Higher Blood Sugar Could Impair Thinking, Saliva Test Could Monitor Type 2 Diabetes, Want More News? Sign Up for Medicine Net Newsletters!

There is a news report by WebMD Health News of Jan. 29, 2009 that states that the risk of Alzheimer’s and other types of dementia increases with diabetes. Dementia can occur in people diagnosed with diabetes before the age 65 years as indicated by some studies. Their findings offer one more reason for people “to maintain a healthy lifestyle during adulthood in order to reduce the risk of dementia later in life.”

Health Day News of Jan. 28, 2009 reports that almost 13% of adults aged 20 and older have diabetes in the United States. Health Day News of Jan. 26, 2009 reports that higher blood sugar can weaken thinking. According to a new study higher average blood glucose (sugar) levels may be associated to lower brain functions. An American Diabetes Association news release declares “Even a mild impairment in cognitive function is of concern for people with type 2 diabetes.”

These are some of the sample news on diabetes mellitus that you can access on the internet which will go a long way in treating and managing your or your family members diabetes.

Francine ratner kaufman type 1 diabetes mellitus

Francine ratner kaufman type 1 diabetes mellitus treatment management involves improved insulin preparations, insulin delivery systems, glucose and ketone monitoring, and laboratory assessment. Dr. Francine Ratner Kaufman, MD, is a professor and head of Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles. She was also elected to The AOA Honorary Medical Society. The 2002 LA County Task force on the Fitness and Health and Fitness was chaired by her. She was also a delegate at the 2002 55th Assembly of the World Health Organization. Dr. Kaufman is chairperson of the NIH-funded STOPP-T2 trials.

Trail Net- the NIH study is trying to put a stop to Type 1 diabetes and preserve beta cell functions. Dr. Kaufman has been active on various committees of the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Kaufman’s other research interests are: Outcome of childhood diabetes, Neurocognitive outcome in diabetes, T-Cell studies in type I diabetes and pre diabetes, prevention of type I diabetes mellitus, Glycemic control and outcome, Nucleotide sugar metabolism, CD Rom teaching module in diabetes, Prevention of hypoglycemia, use of cornstarch – cornstarch bars, Cerebral edema and strokes in DKA and Macrovascular complications.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus occurs owing to complete insulin deficiency. Auto-immune damage of beta cells of the pancreas causes it. Certain viruses and chemical toxins, specific immune factors and genetic weakness are the risk factors for the development of type 1 auto-immune diabetes. Amongst children and adolescents who have francine ratner kaufman type 1 diabetes mellitus the most important factor for sickness and death is diabetic ketoacidosis. This is treated by improvement in the availability of fluids and correcting electrolyte disorder along with release of cautiously managed insulin. The main difficulty in treatment is cerebral edema.

The hallmark of diabetes is hyperglycemia. Life-threatening troubles, such as vascular collapse, acute electrolyte disturbance and cerebral edema can result on account of intense hyperglycemia with ketoacidosis. Long – term problems can injure various organs, including the heart, nerves, kidneys, eyes and blood vessels due to persistent increase of blood glucose levels. Type 1 diabetes mellitus management is a long-term process. This comprises of administration of two or more insulin injections per day, multiple blood glucose measurements, balancing of food and exercise and adjustment of insulin dosage.

The insulin course of therapy for francine ratner kaufman type 1 diabetes mellitus depends on the child’s age and its developmental stage. The insulin dosage is adjusted taking into consideration changes in exercise and movements. The results of a study to see the correlation between Diabetes Control and Complications revealed a noteworthy decline in mean blood glucose levels, glycated hemoglobin concentrations, and diabetic complications. This was in those who received extensive supervision compared with those who received moderate supervision. However, there was a higher risk of acute hypoglycemia in the former group. Long-term problems can take place that injure various organs including the heart, nerves, kidneys, eyes and blood vessels due to persistent increase of blood glucose levels. Currently there is no way to screen for or prevent the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Many people with type 1 diabetes live long, healthy lives. To control their blood sugar all people with type 1 diabetes mellitus must use insulin injections.

Factors influencing type 2 diabetes mellitus

type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease that is indicated by the high level of sugar in the blood stream. This happens when the body either does not produce sufficient amounts of insulin or the body fails to react to the insulin produced by the body. Insulin is a hormone that is discharged by the pancreas and its primary function is to convert or carry glucose to the cells of tissues of the body where it is expended as energy. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most prevalent form of the disease; it was earlier called as adult onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes. However, this disease can develop at any age. Generally it starts with insulin resistance. In this situation the insulin secreted by the pancreas is not properly used by the tissues and cells of the body. The failure of insulin to get inside the fat and muscle cells to generate energy is known as insulin resistance.

In diabetes mellitus type 2 the pancreas progressively looses the capacity to secrete sufficient amounts of insulin in response to the meals consumed by the individuals. Overweight and obese generally develop diabetes type 2. The treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 includes exercise, sensible food choices, medications, strict control of blood pressure and blood lipids. Some of the common symptoms of diabetes type 2 are fatigue, unexplained hunger, excessive thirst, excessive urination, and unexplained weight loss or gain. Diabetes type 2 generally progresses slowly. The chances of developing diabetes can be considerably reduced if one follows a healthy life style that includes exercises, weight management, regular and timely meals and low intake of fatty foods. Poor diet and wrong eating habits along with excessive body fats are the main factors that influence the development of diabetes type 2. other risk factors include history of gestational diabetes, genetics, high blood pressure, race, damaged or impaired glucose tolerance, and advanced age.

When a person is diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus type 2 the doctor or family physician will first concentrate on stabilizing the blood glucose level. This is followed by recommendation of exercises and a diet plan. Doctors also encourage patients to learn basic diabetes management skills for better control over their condition. Taking timely meals, medications and exercising is crucial. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is also important. There are various types of blood glucose monitors available that can help in regular monitoring of glucose levels.

Medicines can be taken when diet and exercise do not help in controlling glucose levels. oral medicines line Biguanides (Metformin), Sulfonylureas, alpha glucosidase inhibitors and Thiazolidinediones are some of the medications prescribed.

About 6% of the total American population suffers from adult onset diabetes; it is also the leading cause of death in USA. Most patients suffering from kidney disease, nervous system disorders, heart problems, and blindness are patients suffering from diabetes type 2. 95% of all diabetic cases in the USA are suffering from diabetes type 2.

The body needs glucose to produce energy but regrettably the cells are numb and cannot recognize insulin, this leads to the build of glucose in the blood. This is the main factor that influences diabetes mellitus type 2.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 treatment

diabetes mellitus is a never ending saga and has no confirmed therapy as such. However, there are well established treatment options that prevent or delay the onset of the disease and its high risk symptoms. Some treatments can in fact prevent most of the consequences of the disease. The treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 has two objectives. One is reduction of advancement of the disease and second is to enhance the quality of life. The first objective is achieved through strict blood glucose control (near normal levels) and while doing so automatically the severity of the diabetic side effects diminishes. This has been well established and there is no disagreement on it. In both the cases the help and support of the health care professionals is important.

In case of obese patients there are a lot of adjustments with diet and daily routine that is essential. Obese patients first need to loose weight and lead an active life that involves exercises. It has been seen that when a diabetic patient starts to do both the above mentioned things, a substantial reduction in blood glucose level and increased sensitivity to insulin is observed. In some cases glycemic levels come to normal with an effective diet regime. Other treatment objectives are reduction in blood pressure level, blood lipid level and elimination of long term effects of diabetes.

Self monitoring of blood glucose levels also improves the treatment outcome in most cases. Generally this is the case with non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Where patients need insulin to bring their blood glucose down or to control it, it is well worth the effort and money as in the long run the patient benefits from fewer side effects. However, it is heartening to note that a significant improvement in blood glucose level can be achieved with diet control itself. Diet control also helps in weight loss. Thus education and awareness is an important part of diabetes management. Conventionally information regarding diabetes is obtained from the primary health care provider or family physician. However, with the availability and easy accessibility of internet many people are able to tutor themselves on diabetes. There are numerous websites and other resources that patient and their families can access to learn about diabetes.

It has been found from the several studies undertaken by dialectologists around the world that aerobic and weight training or resistance training alone can have a considerable effect on the glycemic levels. When done together there is a substantial control achieved on blood glucose levels. The exercise need not be strenuous and even a 45 minute workout every day can do the needful. The exercise routine can include a brisk walk or jog and some weight training. When a diabetic person exercises glucose is drawn from the blood into the cells and used as energy thus reducing the blood glucose level.

Treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 also involves several drugs. There are various classes of drugs that are available and they are not interchangeable. However, all are prescription drugs. The most widely used drug to treat diabetes today is biguanide metformin. This drug’s primary function is to control the release of blood glucose from the liver and the secondary function is to increase the uptake of glucose in the body tissues. Sulfonylurea is another class of drug that is currently used. It enables the pancreas to secrete more insulin and also reduces insulin resistance.

To begin treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 first consult your primary health care provider or personal physician. No two patients are the same and diet, drug, exercise recommendations will vary considerably depending on age, sex, weight, and blood glucose levels, not to mention other medical conditions.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 pathophysiology

diabetes related pathophysiology can be eliminated once diabetic treatment starts and one can reduce the chances of serious health risks. Diabetes mellitus is of two types’ viz. type 1 and type 2. Blood glucose levels in both types remains high and hence the pathophysiology in both the cases is closely related. Insulin resistance is caused either due to the non-production of insulin or due to inadequate production. When there is insulin in the blood but the body fails to recognize it then it is called insulin resistance. This condition is generally known as “post receptor” here the production of insulin is not the problem but its recognition is.

Some more pathophysiology conditions related to diabetes include Polydipsia – this condition occurs due to the excess absorption of glucose that is present in the blood. In this case the individual feels excessive thirst as the brain sends signals to the body to dilute the glucose level by drinking more water. This leads to excessive drinking of water thus, resulting in frequent urination or Polyuria. In such cases the body starts throwing out water and may lead to dehydration. Another condition that is caused by diabetes is increased fatigue. As there is less glucose for the cells to use as energy the body starts to burn fat cells to satisfy its need of energy, as the fat cells get reduced there is weight loss and a sense of fatigue. Fat cells require more energy to be crushed and hence the individual gets tired fast. Conditions like polyuria, glucosuria and reduction of fat and protein lead to abnormal weight loss. This weight loss is compensated by overeating and may result in unexplained weight gain in some patients. Blurred vision is also noticed in some patients. This is caused as the body while throwing out water also expels fluid from the eyes. The resultant condition is called as Hyperosmolar hyperglycemia nonketotic syndrome. When an individual is suffering from this condition he/she is unable to focus his vision.

High blood glucose level also causes tiredness, as the blood glucose is not used efficiently. High blood glucose levels also give rise to infections, as bacteria and fungus thrive in on sugar. Fungal infections, UTI and other infections are an example. Poor wound healing is also caused due to the excess presence of sugar in the blood. The white blood cells that are responsible for fighting germs and other foreign bodies are affected by high glucose level. Lymphocytes that are responsible for repair of wounds are also affected due to the presence of high blood glucose. Poor circulation of blood is also seen in diabetic patients, as the blood gets thicker. This in turn weakens the immune system.

These are some of the pathological conditions that occur due to diabetes. However, all these conditions can be treated or eliminated once the glucose levels in the blood are brought to normal. The best way to achieve this is to take medications, exercise and follow a balanced diet.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 blood

diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high level of glucose in the blood. Imperfection in insulin secretion or its inaction or both are the major causes of diabetes mellitus. In earlier times diabetes mellitus was recognized as a “sweet urine” disease. This was due to the fact that in diabetes excess glucose in the blood spills into the urine. Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas that is responsible for the regulation of glucose levels in our blood. When the blood glucose level in the blood rises over the recommended limit either due to the insufficient amount of insulin or its inefficiency a condition called as hyperglycemia occurs. Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong condition and at best it can be managed and not cured.

There are several complications that can arise due to diabetes. High blood glucose level due to lack of insulin, also called as hyperglycemia. Low blood glucose level due to the presence of high amount of insulin present in the blood, also called as hypoglycemia. Both these conditions can occur due to the defects in the pancreatic cells. Sometimes hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia may also occur due to medications taken for other ailments or other external factors like stress. Severe blood sugar rise in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 can lead to a increase in blood osmolality (hyperosmolar state) when it is accompanied by dehydration. This condition is rather serious and lead to coma, also called as hyperosmolar coma. This condition is generally seen in patients who have an advanced age. Hyperosmolar coma is a serious condition like diabetic ketoacidosis. Patients in such conditions are treated with intravenous fluids and insulin. However, ketoacidosis does not occur due to diabetes mellitus type 2. this condition is generally seen in patients with diabetes type 1. Diabetes type 2 is generally seen in older people along with other medical conditions. Therefore, the mortality rates in patients with hyperosmolar coma are higher compared to diabetic ketoacidosis.

Abnormally low blood sugar is known as hypoglycemia. This condition occurs due to the excessive use of insulin or other glucose lowering medications. This is a constant treat to patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. This condition may also occur due to absence of meals, as the amount of insulin in the blood is not proportionate to the glucose level in the blood. Sudden excessive physical exertion may also lead to the drop in the blood glucose levels.

Brain cells also require the presence of glucose and hence in case of low blood glucose level an individual may feel dizzy, confused, and weak and may suffer from tremors. Symptoms may vary in different individuals depending on the blood glucose level. Generally it happens when the blood sugar level drops below 65 mg/dl. If left untreated low blood glucose levels leads to coma, seizures and sometimes brain death. For brain death to occur the blood glucose level has to drop below 40 mg/dl.

Age, obesity, activity level and lifestyle are the determining factors in the severity of diabetes mellitus type 2. Patients are generally advised to lead an active life, reduce weight and practice stress relieving exercises like yoga.