Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is extremely rare and occurs when the kidneys are unable to save water, which in turn leads to frequent urinations and extreme thirst.

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is extremely rare and occurs when the kidneys are unable to save water, which in turn leads to frequent urinations and extreme thirst.

This occurs when the kidneys are performing their normal duties of filtrating blood. The retaining of water in the kidneys is controlled by an antidiuretic hormone (ADH) commonly called vasopressin. This hormone is produced in the part of the brain called the hypothalamus and controlled by the pituitary gland which is a very small gland located at the base of the brain.

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus occurs when the kidneys are unable to recognized or be controlled by ADH. This occurs because of a problem caused by something else such as blockage in the urinary tract, use of certain medications, high levels of calcium, or low levels of potassium. When the cause of this form of diabetes insipidus is identified and corrected, the disease usually clears up. Medications used to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus include anti-inflammatory medication indomethacin and diuretics such as amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ).

Central diabetes insipidus is the most common type of diabetes insipidus. It can be caused by damage to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus because of infection, brain surgery, tumor or cancers that have spread to the pituitary, head injury or excessive use of alcohol. This is called central diabetes insipidus because the area that controls ADH is where the problem lies. Symptoms of central diabetes insipidus can be controlled with vasopressin either as a nasal spray or oral tablets.

Complications of both types of diabetes insipidus can be caused by dehydration which causes dry skin, fever, weight loss and rapid heart beat or electrolyte imbalance which causes fatigue, irritability, headaches and muscle pains. If you develop any of the symptoms or complications that are related to diabetes insipidus, you should meet with your primary care physician as quickly as possible.

There is currently no way to prevent diabetes insipidus but the prognosis when diagnosed and treated early is good when the underlying reason for this problem is identified and corrected.

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is extremely rare and occurs when the kidneys are unable to save water, which in turn leads to frequent urinations and extreme thirst.

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