Diabetes mellitus type 2 pathophysiology

diabetes related pathophysiology can be eliminated once diabetic treatment starts and one can reduce the chances of serious health risks. Diabetes mellitus is of two types’ viz. type 1 and type 2. Blood glucose levels in both types remains high and hence the pathophysiology in both the cases is closely related. Insulin resistance is caused either due to the non-production of insulin or due to inadequate production. When there is insulin in the blood but the body fails to recognize it then it is called insulin resistance. This condition is generally known as “post receptor” here the production of insulin is not the problem but its recognition is.

Some more pathophysiology conditions related to diabetes include Polydipsia – this condition occurs due to the excess absorption of glucose that is present in the blood. In this case the individual feels excessive thirst as the brain sends signals to the body to dilute the glucose level by drinking more water. This leads to excessive drinking of water thus, resulting in frequent urination or Polyuria. In such cases the body starts throwing out water and may lead to dehydration. Another condition that is caused by diabetes is increased fatigue. As there is less glucose for the cells to use as energy the body starts to burn fat cells to satisfy its need of energy, as the fat cells get reduced there is weight loss and a sense of fatigue. Fat cells require more energy to be crushed and hence the individual gets tired fast. Conditions like polyuria, glucosuria and reduction of fat and protein lead to abnormal weight loss. This weight loss is compensated by overeating and may result in unexplained weight gain in some patients. Blurred vision is also noticed in some patients. This is caused as the body while throwing out water also expels fluid from the eyes. The resultant condition is called as Hyperosmolar hyperglycemia nonketotic syndrome. When an individual is suffering from this condition he/she is unable to focus his vision.

High blood glucose level also causes tiredness, as the blood glucose is not used efficiently. High blood glucose levels also give rise to infections, as bacteria and fungus thrive in on sugar. Fungal infections, UTI and other infections are an example. Poor wound healing is also caused due to the excess presence of sugar in the blood. The white blood cells that are responsible for fighting germs and other foreign bodies are affected by high glucose level. Lymphocytes that are responsible for repair of wounds are also affected due to the presence of high blood glucose. Poor circulation of blood is also seen in diabetic patients, as the blood gets thicker. This in turn weakens the immune system.

These are some of the pathological conditions that occur due to diabetes. However, all these conditions can be treated or eliminated once the glucose levels in the blood are brought to normal. The best way to achieve this is to take medications, exercise and follow a balanced diet.